Sunday, 7 April 2013

Dream in code: 'Neural Decoding of Visual Imagery During Sleep'

Lucid dreaming

fMRI/EEG combination used to decode dream images

 A study recently published in the journal Science described work on dream image mapping carried out by neuroscientist Yukiyasu Kamitani and colleagues at the Advanced Telecommunications Research Computational Neuroscience labs in Kyoto, Japan.

 Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to scan the brains of three young men as they drifted off to sleep inside an fMRI scanner, while simultaneously recording their brain activity using electroencephalography (EEG).

When the men had entered a ' hypnagogic state' - when their brain wave patterns had begun to resemble those known to be associated with sleep - they were woken up and asked to describe their dreams, then allowed to go back to sleep. This procedure was carried in three-hour blocks, repeated 7 to 10 times (on different days) for each volunteer. Approximately 200 dream reports were recorded from each participant, and the reported images were then grouped into categories that were specifically oriented  to the individual's particular patterns of  repeatedly-occurring elements using the lexical database WordNet. A video montage of images from the ImageNet database corresponding to the keywords generated by the dream reports was presented to the wide-awake men while their brain activity was being monitored. An algorithm developed to recognise the brain activity ''signatures'' associated with various dream images separated non-visual brain activity from vision-related excitation patterns, to verify that dreaming involves some of the same brain areas that are associated with visual imagery. This algorithm was combined with machine-learning techniques that used the waking brain activity patterns as 'training' examples. After training the program, the researchers input patterns of sleeping brain activity - the 'test' examples - and were able to predict which category of image had produced that pattern of brain activity.
Subsequently, upon awakening the dreamers in a second round of tests, the researchers were able to identify broad categories of dream images with 60 per cent accuracy.

''Our findings provide evidence that specific contents of visual experience during sleep are represented by, and can be read out from, visual cortical activity patterns shared with stimulus representation.''

 "By analysing the brain activity during the nine seconds before we woke the subjects, we could predict whether a man is in the dream or not, for instance, with an accuracy of 75–80%."

In 2008 Kamitani and his team had reported that they could decode and reconstruct visual images from brain activity in the primary visual cortical areas, where inputs from the retina are received. The present work looks at activity in the higher order brain regions that combine integration of the visual input with concept-level processes as well as information from other senses.

The  'hypnagogic state' is a state of consciousness between waking and sleeping. 'Embodied imagination' work on the hypnagogic state was pioneered by Robert Bosnak and based on principles first developed by Carl Jung. See International Journal of Dream Research Volume 4, Supplement 1 (2011)

Dreams in the hypnagogic state were studied rather than the dreams that occur during REM (rapid eye movement) sleep later in the night because it normally takes hours to transition to REM from normal sleep. Immobilisation inside an MRI tube until REM sleep is achieved, several times a day for 10 days, would be an ordeal.

Jack Gallant, a neuroscientist at the University of California, Berkeley, commented:

"In this field of dream decoding, no one has managed to successfully do this before. So this is not the final step down this road, it's the first step."

"If you could build the perfect dream decoder it would create a movie on your television screen and it would just replay your dreams. It would replay all the actions that happened, the actors, the people involved and it would replay the sound."



Horikawa, T., et al. (2013). Neural Decoding of Visual Imagery During Sleep. Science, doi: 10.1126/science.1234330)

11 comments:

  1. Hi Debra, great topic. I read that Kamitani has pointed out that as this procedure improves, the ethical implications of neural decoding will need further thought.... I agree with him!

    According to Freud, the reason we struggle to remember our dreams is because the superego is at work (it is protecting the conscious mind from the disturbing images and desires conjured by the unconscious when we dream).... the poor researchers!!!!

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  2. http://www.thebookofbiff.com/2013/04/08/1769-recurring/

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  3. About a year ago American public broadcasting radio's (some people surf the net, I surf world radio)To the Best of Our Knowledge did a special called Steve Paulson on Why Consciousness?

    http://ttbook.org/book/steve-paulsons-set-consciousnesspenrose

    In which the philosopher Daniel Dennett put forward this notion. He claims that it's inevitable that we'll eventually be able to correlate brain activity to dream content. Seems ludicrous to me.

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  4. 3d bioprinting = Immortality = go to stars

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  5. ...interstellar travel constant acceleration (3d bioprinting: mom-printer)... on wake up, but...if I am, when I was 18 years old...and still so I remember all my Life in the ancient body before... On the body the important is the head, in the head the important is the brain, in the brain the important is...The Memory...which is, along with Genes and Image, simply, what we are... Your recorded Memory to the new young perfect identical bioprinted body and...Immortality...already the accidents do not matter. The Memory is the "soul" (software), our body only is the "automobile" that transport us (hardware)... To what extent are we willing to recognize a friend, or picture yourself, who has received an orthopedic implant after an accident?. Until 1 leg?, besides of leg the 2 arms?, besides of this the chest?, besides of this...?, where until we still considering to it the same person?. Ultimately, already outside from the physical body, the Memory remains... Wherever our Memory goes, over there we are... Record the Memory in a electronic format and stored by Law in the Official Data Banks, along with Genes and a Photo of each one, waiting there are in the Future... 1: BIOPRINTED BODIES genetically identical, in image and all, to the originals in which "revitalize" to the electronic sleepers... 2: SPACE where to live a New and Immortal Life in some Universe´s habitable place. (But...is that..."it" already would be not "Me"...it would be a "cyborg/clone/avatar/frankenstein"... Are you sure?, because to sleep, lose consciousness, "it" disappears every night (die=sleep=fall fainted: switch off and darkness, the unique difference is when sleeping the body continues horizontal living alone vegetal without us, how an empty house no owner-occupied)...and wake up "it" appears every morning (rebirths)...and our MEMORY instantly auto-recognize us, the same in our own original body which in our new body... If we would have lost the Memory...we would have lost the Life)... Memory-Genes-Photo►Bioprinted Body►Space...

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  6. ...interstellar travel constant acceleration (without religion "feasts": Inquisition)... when until goes to continue the world the "feasts" of religion enduring?... What a beautiful is the "Christ"mas!, but...that still only has the splendid showcase and after with the back-room of religious gloomy darkness, horror and crime. No more wiles to innocents, make already the authentic Birthmas, the Nativity from the wonderful real women, and not from the inhuman-religious tales. Have to transform already ALL the "feasts" of religion into TRUE HUMAN FESTIVITIES, that not "pagans", nor do "mundane". Have that send already once and for all the religion, what religion, mine, yours, or of those?, all religions: the religion...to the trash (finished religion´s Wars, the unique Immortality it is coming from We self: Technological Immortality). Without delinquency, a New World based on Truth and Justice: 1 only United Planet without Nations, without Wars and without Frontiers (cities only), with 1 only World Government, 1 only Flag and 1 only Idiom... No more religion for to continue "forever and ever" the religious infecting global media, enterprises (watch cross seeming feign "4 windows" in Windos10), governments, schools, high schools and universities with their ancestral system buys-wills, "if you want have a job, house and a car on the door, already you know put the neck in the priests", with their thousands of million of "believers": Bought, or Innocents, or Ignorant... No more religious tale time counting false "century XXI, year 2019 a.c."... A Planetary Convention to select the True Starting of the Time Counting... if from beginning of the Bronze Ages year 1, year -10500 begin mathematics: some straight lines representing each one the number 1... on the Earth Planet, century 66th... Merry Birthmas and Happy New Year 6519.

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  7. (2)...interstellar travel constant acceleration (without suffering)... in that Brazil of the miserable ones, they say that for "to clean" the streets for the World Football Championship,,,the polic,,,assassi,,,childr,,, (someone of those majors children is capable of to kill for robbing the shoes, but the vermin are who governs and convert them in that). And FIFA "get to knew nothing", they would must to have done suspend the damned World Championship and to observe 1 minute of silence for that innocents "swept away" from the streets and from the life... Can watch in photographs to two little girls begging alms, the tender creatures are joined for mutual helping to carry their solitude and abandonment... When the night goes down, to where they go?...they have searched instinctively, such as all living beings, a place for take refuge...the place of the darkness, the place of the distance, the place of the fear, the place of the rats present over there too...one day another day, one night another night... Where is that "God"?, in the homovices ceilings of the Vatic ano. Where the hope?, where the tenderness?, where the education?...at none part. Others ones, carry glue to them for inhaling and forgetting and for dying.

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  8. ...interstellar travel constant acceleration (without suffering)... in the Brazil of the "Ordem e Progresso" the "children of the street" abandoned such as if they were dogs...in countries of Orient as Lebanon, children almost babies thrown away on the ground together with an adult begging alms, already from their more tender infancy they get accustomed to look the World from down and suffering...children dying of cold into refugee camps in countries with endless religion´s wars...and meanwhile shameless multireligious-pontifices in their golden palaces eating partridges, and well sheltered with the best wool in the best blankets made in England, the best boots...and not fall down their faces of shame when they look to themselves in the mirror... How they can have $50,000 million in the Bank, living on a golden skyscraper and to be dedicated to want build a barrier-wall, instead of to be dedicated to saving to all those who they can?... THE WORLD CAN NOT CONTINUE INDIFERENT TO THAT HORROR AGAINST THE INFANCY... ALL those children who are suffering must be rescued and be in ward by the State and be delivered in ADOPTION to all adequate FAMILIES OF THE WORLD who want adopt them... Children 8,500 die of hunger everyday on the World... Off with religion, off with monarchies and off with politicians shameless.

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  9. ...3d bioprinting-Immortality (mom-printer: dignity)... miserable-religious are who infect and deceive with their religion tales to the World (religious are in wait for: careful with put "Immorality" instead of Immortality, uf...), religious barking "it woule be a cyborg/clone/avatar/frankenstein", miserable-religious are who make auto-propaganda in Global Media and indirectly write scrip of the falsity movie "the 6th day", demented-religious who have in exclusive "a business of death". The World that still ignores (go to street and ask by bioprinting...) accustomed to the past of impotence in the matter, do not still knows that already has to change the chip, that must do not insult to Immortals who will come (all Humankind) call them "cyborg". When somebody is suffering the death of their little daughter (Chiquitita) and Science does record her Memory-Genes-Image in a new identical bioprinted body and then she comes back again to the life exactly the same that previously, those parents will tolerate that the miserable-priest call her "cyborg"?. The Intellective Power of Humankind carries us to dominate the Universe, Life and Immortality. Will there is NOTHING that we not can obtain. Only is a question of Time.

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  10. (1)...space-elevator (orbital station ramp: fresh air)... RENOVATOR AIR UNIT: Powerful-Compressør³ continuously extracting the air Only from bathrooms → compressed dity air through anti-return retention´s ÷valve to ©Deposit at outer space...besides punctually reinforcing, when sensor detects presence into bathroom connects extractor ~Ventilator of Pressure (220 v.ac/50 W) that carries the dirty air to a graphene´s inflatable ºBalloon at outer space, another Compressør² extracts the air of the ºBalloon and injects it compressed through another anti-return retention´s ÷valve to circuit of the ©Deposit which has the dirty air already liquid at cryogenic temperature → #DISTILLER Linde mini → liquids N and O2 (Water Distilled is rescued, the dirty remains that can´t be used is thrown to space) → █Tank Reservoir Air Liquid that receives, if it is necessary, also O2 from ■Tank reservoir O2 liquid... From █Tank Reservoir Air Liquid (N+O2) arrives more/less new air for maintaining the ambient pressure: »»» breeze of clean fresh air 1 bar »»»░... Finally shall smell to roses in a Spacecraft.

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  11. ...3d bioprinting-Immortality (telomeres biological timers: reverse aging)... old age short telomere, Youth Long Telomere...ON... Immortality, here we go...goooooo!... modifying Biological Timers for every birthday to reach 1 less year old on biological age...until arrive to the 18, then come back to reach 1 more until arrive to the 50, then backward again...and so for all Eternity... until arrives an accident: your recorded MEMORY to the new young perfect identical Bioprinted Body and...Immortality...already the accidents do not matter... She discovered that eroded TELOMERES (final part) already do not protect extremes of Chromosomes, followed the correct track of the path initiated by H.J. Muller that will carry to the number 1 aspiration: IMMORTALITY: Dr. Barbara McClintock...Honor and Glory Eternals... Already must have in the Universe one star calle Barbara McClintock.

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